A closer look at the current state of crypto taxation worldwide reveals a trend toward increased regulation and maturity, with many governments recognizing the potential benefits of blockchain technology in various sectors. As the blockchain and cryptocurrency industry continues to evolve and gain mainstream adoption, the regulatory landscape surrounding them is also evolving rapidly.
Cointelegraph Research has recently published its Crypto Taxation Database, which takes a closer look at approaches to crypto taxation on a country level and contains the following features:
- A comprehensive overview of crypto taxation by country — i.e., tax rates, tax laws and tax policies.
- A clear distinction between taxable and non-taxable events.
- Helpful information for investors, businesses and policymakers interested in understanding taxation requirements in different jurisdictions.
For example, in Europe, there has been an active promotion of the use of blockchain technology in finance, logistics and healthcare. The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has issued guidance on regulating initial coin offerings. The European Parliament has called for a comprehensive approach to regulating cryptocurrencies.
In Asia, South Korea has announced plans to tax cryptocurrency exchanges and implement a 20% crypto earnings tax that was delayed from January 2023 until 2025. However, questions on how to regulate and tax cryptocurrency transactions arise, highlighting the need for a comprehensive approach on a global scale.
Tax treatment depends on the classification
The classification of a cryptocurrency as an asset, currency or property in various jurisdictions is of utmost importance for individuals to comply with tax laws and regulations.
When a country classifies a cryptocurrency as an asset, it is treated similarly to other types of assets, such as stocks, bonds or commodities. This means that gains and losses from the sale or trading of cryptocurrency are subject to capital gains tax.
When a country classifies cryptocurrency as a property, it is treated similarly to a car or a piece of jewelry. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS), for example, classifies cryptocurrency as property in the United States, meaning taxpayers must report capital gains or losses on their tax returns.
The tax rate on cryptocurrency gains in the U.S. varies depending on whether the gains are short-term (one year or less) or long-term (more than one year). For example, in 2023, the standard income tax rates range from 10% to 37%, depending on the individual’s income level. The long-term capital gains tax rates for 2023 would range from 0% to 20%, depending on the individual’s income level.
If you want to learn more about taxation rates regarding various crypto activities worldwide, make sure to utilize the data collected in the Cointelegraph Research Crypto Taxation Database.
How to handle crypto gains and mining income
There are various tax reporting requirements for individuals and businesses. Some countries have established legislation or guidelines aimed at tackling these concerns.
In Germany, cryptocurrencies are classified as assets, and profits from the sale or exchange of cryptocurrencies are subject to capital gains tax. Additionally, Germany has an extensive guide on computing and managing taxes, covering topics ranging from decentralized finance (DeFi) to nonfungible tokens, and even tax-free earnings subject to certain exemptions.
For example, if your short-term investment profits total less than $600 annually, you are not required to pay taxes, or if you hold your cryptocurrency for a year before spending it, you are exempt from taxes. Though, most countries are still working to determine the best approach.
Income from mining or staking is also one of the key concerns regarding crypto taxation. Some countries treat income from mining or staking as ordinary income, while others classify it as a capital gain. This can affect how much tax is owed and how it should be reported. In the United States, income from mining or staking is taxed at an individual’s marginal tax rate of 10%–37%, as it is considered a business activity rather than a capital investment.
In Canada, income from mining or staking is also generally treated as ordinary income and is subject to income tax at the individual’s marginal tax rate ranging from 20.5% to 33% federally, with additional provincial taxes ranging from 0% to 21%. In contrast, some countries, such as Singapore, classify income from mining or staking as a capital gain, which is generally not taxed, although individuals who engage in mining or staking activities may still be subject to other taxes.
Keeping up with the changes
As the crypto industry continues to grow and develop, there is a growing trend toward adopting standardized approaches to taxation, which is likely to continue in the future, along with greater clarity and transparency for those involved in the space. For example, Switzerland offers tax exemptions for crypto-related activities, including holding cryptocurrencies and transferring them between wallets, generally providing a well-defined regulatory framework for businesses operating within the digital currency sector.
Individuals and businesses should keep themselves informed about the latest regulations and seek professional advice to comply with the law and reduce their tax burden. For instance, an announcement made by Chancellor of the Exchequer Jeremy Hunt on March 15, 2023, impacts United Kingdom taxpayers who must file their crypto profits separately starting from 2025.
The opinions expressed in this article are for general informational purposes only and are not intended to provide specific advice or recommendations for any individual or on any specific security or investment product.
As a crypto investor or trader, it is crucial to be aware of any changes in tax laws and reporting requirements in your country or region and ensure compliance with those regulations to avoid legal consequences. To stay up to date with all the taxation rules, rates in different jurisdictions and taxable events, you can use Cointelegraph Research Taxation database.